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Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low. adaptive logic: A behavior has adaptive logic if it tends to increase the number of offspring that an individual contributes to the next and following generations.

If such a behavior is even partly genetically determined, it will tend to become widespread in the population.

The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in "the adaptive radiation of mammals." adaptive strategies: A mode of coping with competition or environmental conditions on an evolutionary time scale.

Species adapt when succeeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristics.

amphibians: The class of vertebrates that contains the frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders.

The amphibians evolved in the Devonian period (about 370 million years ago) as the first vertebrates to occupy the land.

adaptive radiation: The diversification, over evolutionary time, of a species or group of species into several different species or subspecies that are typically adapted to different ecological niches (for example, Darwin's finches).artifact: An object made by humans that has been preserved and can be studied to learn about a particular time period.artificial selection: The process by which humans breed animals and cultivate crops to ensure that future generations have specific desirable characteristics.Amphibian larvae are aquatic, and have gills for respiration; they undergo metamorphosis to the adult form.Most amphibians are found in damp environments and they occur on all continents except Antarctica.

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