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Typically, a quantum vortex is characterized by a density node and a phase discontinuity.Other known signatures of angular momentum, such as center-of-mass rotation, surface waves, and quadrupole modes are also features of the density profile.We describe previously unknown many-body mechanisms of vortex nucleation and show that angular momentum is hidden in phantom vortices modes which so far seem to have evaded experimental detection.

Contrary to the conventional mean-field vortex, can be detected as a topological defect of spatial coherence, but not of the density.Here we investigate the dynamics of interacting bosons in two dimensions by numerically solving the time-dependent many-body Schrödinger equation for a standard rotation scenario using the recursive implementation of MCTDHB in the MCTDH-X software package.The system that we describe here is similar to that simulated in ref.Our results demonstrate that angular momentum in fragmented condensates manifests itself in a new type of coreless vortex, which we name the phantom vortex due to its elusive nature.It is important to stress that we found phantom vortices for a wide range of particle numbers, interaction strength, interaction range, trap anisotropy, and rotation frequencies, see Supplementary Information. Yet, their importance in the dynamical acquisition of angular momentum by many-body systems, even in the parameter regime where no vortices nucleate in the density, has been overlooked.

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