Carbon dating used determine age earth
Careful studies of how the craters overlap other craters and other features can be used to develop a history or sequence of the bombardment on the moons and planets. Worlds with less volcanism or erosion or tectonic activity in their history will retain more impact craters since the planet formed.
Worlds with more geological or erosional activity will have newer surfaces or craters that have been so worn away as to be unrecognizable.
Also the pressure from the surrounding solid rock squeezes the molten rock upward.
Molten rock contains trapped gases that expand as it rises causing it to rise even faster.
The last stage of that "sweeping up", called the occurred from about 4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago.
At a minimum crater-age dating can tell you the ages of surfaces (which surface is older than another).
The size of the craters having central peaks depends on the gravity of the planet or moon: on the Moon craters larger than about 60 kilometers in diameter have central peaks while the crater diameter on the Earth needs to be larger than just 1 to 3 kilometers.
Impact cratering was especially prevalent for the first several hundred million years after the planets formed as the planets swept up left-over material.
Most of the impact basins---craters measured in hundreds of kilometers---were made during this time.
It is noteworthy that about the time the heavy bombardment ended, life took hold.