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This immensely increases the capacity of researchers to distinguish between different cell types (such as neurons and glia) in various regions of the nervous system.

The brain is small and simple in some species, such as the nematode worm, where the body plan is quite simple: a tube with a hollow gut cavity running from the mouth to the anus, and a nerve cord with an enlargement (a ganglion) for each body segment, with an especially large ganglion at the front, called the brain.

This article discusses information pertinent to the study of neuroanatomy.

The first known written record of a study of the anatomy of the human brain is the ancient Egyptian document the Edwin Smith Papyrus.

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Neuroanatomy is the study of the anatomy and stereotyped organization of nervous systems.

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been studied because of its importance in genetics.

In the early 1970s, Sydney Brenner chose it as a model system for studying the way that genes control development, including neuronal development.

For example, much of what neuroscientists have learned comes from observing how damage or "lesions" to specific brain areas affects behavior or other neural functions.

Commonly used terms for planes of orientation or planes of section in neuroanatomy are "sagittal", "transverse" or "coronal", and "axial" or "horizontal".

Again in this case, the situation is different for swimming, creeping or quadrupedal (prone) animals than for Man, or other erect species, due to the changed position of the axis.

Herophilus and Erasistratus of Alexandria were perhaps the most influential Greek neuroscientists with their studies involving dissecting the brains.

For several hundred years afterward, with the cultural taboo of dissection, no major progress occurred in neuroscience.

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