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After the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689, they functioned as intermediaries between the Russians, Manchu and Japanese, also with the Ainu who were vassals of the Japanese.Early contact with the southern Sakhalin Ainu was generally hostile, although trade between the two was apparent.The Nivkh were soon outnumbered; they were sometimes employed as prison guards and to track escaped convicts.Though the Empire of Japan never controlled the northern part of Sakhalin, Japan and Russia jointly ruled the island as part of the 1855 Treaty of Shimoda.Formerly their territories had extended westwards at least as far as the Uda river and the Shantar Islands until pushed out by the Manchus and, later, the Russians.For many centuries, the Nivkh were tributary to the Manchus.The etymology of the name "Gilyak" is disputed by linguists, with some believing the name originated from an exonym given to the Nivkhs by a nearby Tungusic group.Other scholars believe that "Gilyak" derives from Kile, another nearby Tungusic group that the Russians had mistakenly named Nivkhs. "[people wearing clothes made of] fish-skin"; a Chinese appellation that was also used for the Nanai people) on an early 18 c.
After the ice receded, Tungusic peoples from the south pressed into the warmer northern areas, soon dominating the settled peoples.
In the 1850s–1860s, Cossacks of the Russian Empire annexed and colonized Nivkh lands, where they are a small, often neglected, minority today.
Today, the Nivkh live in Russian-style housing and with the over-fishing and pollution of the streams and seas, they have adopted many foods from Russian cuisine.
The Russians established a penal colony on Sakhalin, which operated from 1857 to 1906.
They transported numerous Russian criminal and political exiles there, including Lev Sternberg, an important early ethnographer of the Nivkh.