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Those people further mixed a small fraction with archaic humans, the Neanderthals and, for a few, the Denisovans.That founder effect unfolded within the last 100,000 years.Very ancient peoples mixed too, but migration and mixing were less in the distant past than in recent history.What this means is that today’s Khoe-San people share many genes with people in other parts of Africa, and with people in Eurasia, from recent mixing.

But the African populations here had no strong bottleneck.

If we use today’s genetic diversity to try to work out the original ancestors of modern humans, we’re going to come up with an answer that is too recent, because of these recently shared genes.

Schlebusch and her team used the 2000-year-old genome to come up with a better estimate of when the stem population of modern humans lived.

The Khoe-San people in this chart have no sign of a bottleneck at all.

From Mallick et al., 2016, doi:10.1038/nature18964One problem is that the “bottleneck” concept applies mostly to people outside of Africa.

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